مسيحيو الشرق لأجل المسيح

لأَنَّهُ هَكَذَا أَحَبَّ اللَّهُ الْعَالَمَ حَتَّى بَذَلَ ابْنَهُ الْوَحِيدَ لِكَيْ لاَ يَهْلِكَ كُلُّ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ بَلْ تَكُونُ لَهُ الْحَيَاةُ الأَبَدِيَّةُ.

ما هو اقدم الاناجيل: هل هو انجيل مرقس ام انجيل متى ؟؟

Posted by mechristian في مايو 27, 2010

ما هو اقدم الاناجيل: هل هو انجيل مرقس ام انجيل متى ؟؟


NewMan

حتى فترة قريبة كان اغلب الدارسون يميلون لترجيع بشارة مرقس كأقدم البشائر او الاناجيل التي تم تسجيلها باللغة اليونانية في العهد الجديد ، ولكني وجدت بالتصفح على الانترنت هذه المقالة ، بعنوان :

Jewish Talmud Confirms an Early Gospel of Matthew

By Neil Altman [1] and David Crowder

The Standard-Times April 19, 2003 [2]

المقالة تشير الى كتاب نشر في جامعة نوتردام – ولاية انديانا

الفصح والقيامة : الاصل والتاريخ حتى الزمن المعاصر

الناشر :  جامعة نوتردام – انديانا .[3]

جاءت فيها هذه القصة من التلمود اليهودي ، وغرضها الاساسي الاساءة الى سمعة قاضي مسيحي ، ولكن القصة اعطت حقيقة اعمق مما كان يفترض كاتبها ان تعطي .[4]

القصة والتي ترجع تاريخها الى ما قبل دمار الهيكل في حوالي سنة 70 ميلادية (اي بعد صلب المسيح بحوالي 40 سنة ) تقول أن سيدة يهودية (ايما شالوم [5] – زوجة اليعازر بن هيركانوس [6]) عرضت مصباحا ذهبيا كرشوة لقاضي مسيحي (بحسب التلمود: فيلوسوفوس) ، معروفا بنزاهته ،  وطلبت من القاضي ان يحكم لها بمشاركة اخيها في تقسيم الميراث الذي تركه ابوها مناصفة بينهما،  وعندما اجاب القاضي طلبها وحكم لها بمناصفة اخيها في الميراث  ، تدّخل (اخوها) الراباي غمالائيل [7]، وبيّن للقاضي المسيحي خطأه في هذا الحكم (بتفسيره ان القانون الجديد يلغي قانون موسى )  ، وقال له : اقرأ باكثر تركيز في الكتاب، فانه مكتوب ” لا تظنوا اني جئت لانقض الناموس او الانبياء. ما جئت لانقض بل لاكمّل.”

الاقتباس الذي قام به الراباي هنا جاء من فقرة لم ترد الا في انجيل (متى 5: 17).

وهذا يشير الى ان الانجيل كان موجودا ومكتوبا بل ومنتشرا قبل سنة 70 ميلادية، الراباي غمالائيل ، وهو راباي يهودي مشهور بأنه زعيم او كبير المعلمين اليهود في هذه الفترة من التاريخ [7].

القصة تستكمل وتقول ان الراباي اليهودي غمالائيل ، قال انه كسب المجادلة مع القاضي بأنه دخل عليه راكبا جحشا ليبيا ، وطلب منه تنفيذ تقسيم الميراث بحسب شريعة موسى والتي تعطي الميراث كله للابن في حال وجوده ، وشبه انتصاره ، باشارة واضحة الى قصة دخول المسيح الانتصاري الى اورشليم ، على جحش ابن اتان (القصة وردت ايضا في انجيل متى ) .

القصة لا تتوقف عند هذا الحد ، بل تستكمل ان السيدة اليهودية قالت للقاضي المسيحي : “فليضيء نوركم كمصباح قدام الناس” ، والقصد من هذه الاشارة في التلمود اليهودي ، هو التلميح الى المصباح الذهبي الذي اعطته القاضي كرشوة ، ولكنه يعطي ايضا دليلا قويا على اقتباس آخر واضح من (انجيل متى 5: 16) ، والذي جاء في الآية السابقة مباشرة والتي اقتبسها اخوها الراباي غمالائيل :

( فليضئ نوركم هكذا قدام الناس لكي يروا اعمالكم الحسنة ويمجدوا اباكم الذي في السموات) .

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الهوامش

[1] Neil Altman is a Philadelphia-based writer who specializes in the Dead Sea Scrolls and religion. He has done graduate work at Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, Conwell School of Theology, and Temple University. He has a master’s degree in Old Testament from Wheaton Graduate School in Wheaton, Ill., and was an American Studies Fellow at Eastern College. David Crowder is an investigative reporter for the El Paso Times in Texas.

[2] In Rabbi Gamaliel’s story, a daughter whose father had died offers a golden lamp as a bribe to a Christian judge known for his honesty, seeking a decision that would allow her to share her father’s estate with her brother. When the judge suggests that dividing the estate would be proper on the basis of a new law that had superseded the ancient Law of Moses, Gamaliel argues that the judge is wrong and loosely quotes a statement attributed to Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew.

Look further in the book, and it is written in it, ‘I have not come to take away from the Law of Moses nor add to the Law of Moses … .’ ” Gamaliel replies, and wins the case on the basis of that argument or the bribe he gave the judge — a “Libyan ass.”

http://preteristarchive.com/BibleStudies/Bible_NT/Matthew/Articles/2003_altman-crowder_dating-talmud.html

[3] Passover and Easter: Origin and History to Modern Times,

Edited by Paul F. Bradshaw and Lawrence A. Hoffman

University of Notre Dame Press

بالرغم من ان اغلب دارسي الكتاب المقدس يقولون ان انجيل مرقس هو الاسبق في الكتابة ، وان انجيل متى لم يظهر قبل سنة 90 ميلادية ، فان محتوى المقال والحقائق الواردة فيه ، تلقي دلائل قوية على ان انجيل متى كان متواجدا في العام 70 ميلادية وربما قبلها ايضا .

المقال يستشهد باراء باحثين قرأوا الكتاب المشار اليه ، مثل :

The late English scholar, R. Travers Herford

المقال الانجليزي يحتوى دلائل اخرى على وجود شخصية المسيح في التلمود اليهودي ، ولكن لهذا الحديث مقال آخر.

جدير بالذكر انني قمت بابحاثي الخاصة على الانترنت ووجدت ان القصة ايضا وردت بنفس المعنى على موقع دائرة المعارف اليهودية ( راجع الهوامش اسفل المقال ) .

[4] القصة مذكورة ايضاعلى موقع  دائرة المعارف اليهودية

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?letter=I&artid=111

Imma Shalom survived both her husband and her brother. She dutifully tended the former in his last moments, although his disposition had become soured (Sanh. 68a). A story is told of a mock suit between Imma Shalom and her brother, in which the pretensions of a certain judge were exposed. The judge (the Talmud calls him “philosophos”) appears to have been a Jewish Christian who boasted of his honesty and impartiality. Imma Shalom presented him with a golden lamp, and then brought a suit against her brother for a share in their father’s estate. The judge favored her claim. Gamaliel protested on the ground of the provision “in our Law”—”Where there is a son, a daughter inherits nothing” (see Num. xxvii. 8 et seq.); but the judge replied, “Since your people have come under foreign government the law of Moses has been superseded by other writings, which rule that son and daughter inherit alike.” Gamaliel then presented him with a Libyan ass and renewed his protest. Then the judge reversed his previous decision, saying, “I have read further in those writings, and there it is written, ‘I came neither to take away from the law of Moses nor to add to the law of Moses’ [comp. Matt. v. 17], and in that law it is written that where there is a son a daughter inherits not.” Imma Shalom thereupon exclaimed, “Let thy light shine as a lamp” (comp. Matt. v. 16), in allusion to her gift. But Gamaliel said, “An ass came and upset the lamp” (Shab. 116a et seq)

Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=111&letter=I#ixzz0gJ1hHW6D

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مصدر آخر للقصة من موقع

Jewish Virtual Library

The second aggadah (Shab. 116a–b) tells of a certain “philosopher” in Imma Shalom’s vicinity, who served as a judge and who had the reputation of not accepting bribes. She and her brother contrived a lawsuit, ostensibly in connection with the division of their patrimony, inherited from their father, Rabban Simeon b. Gamaliel I, for the purpose of embarrassing this judge, and showing up his true character. Imma Shalom sent him a golden lamp before submitting the case to him. He ruled that the patrimony should be divided equally. Gamaliel said to him: “In our Torah it says that where there is a son the daughter does not inherit,” to which he retorted: “Since the day you were exiled from your land, the law of Moses has been superseded by a new law” (Mss. read “the law of the Evangelium”), “and there it states that a son and daughter inherit equally.” The next day Gamaliel sent him a Libyan ass. When they subsequently came before him he said to them: “I have looked at the continuation of the Evangelium and it states there: ‘I did not come to subtract from the law of Moses but [so in the Mss.] to add to it,’ and there it states that the daughter does not inherit where there is a son.” Imma Shalom exclaimed: “Let thy light shine forth like a lamp”; whereupon Gamaliel retorted: “An ass came and kicked over the lamp.”

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0009_0_09510.html

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[5]ايما شالوم

Wife of Eliezer ben Hyrcanus and sister of Gamaliel II. Of her early life but little is known. She was probably brought up under the care of her brother, and is therefore sometimes cited as his daughter

Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=111&letter=I#ixzz0gIzdPMQy

[6] اليعازر بن هيركانوس

One of the most prominent tannaim of the first and second centuries; disciple of R. Johanan ben Zakkai (Ab. ii. 8; Ab. R. N. vi. 3, xiv. 5) and colleague of Gamaliel II., whose sister he married (see Imma Shalom),

Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=215&letter=E#ixzz0gIz1yaFT

(c.40-c. 120 CE). Tanna of the second generation, also known as R. Eliezer the Great, the outstanding pupil of Johanan Ben Zakkai (whom he helped smuggle out of Jerusalem during the Roman siege)

http://www.answers.com/topic/eliezer-ben-hyrcanus

[7] غمالائيل الثاني

The recognized head of the Jews in Palestine during the last two decades of the first and at the beginning of the second century. He continued with great energy and success the work of restoration begun by Johanan b. Zakkai.

Read more: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=52&letter=G#ixzz0gIykSrQi

Gamaliel II: (flourished 2nd century) Rabbi and president of the Sanhedrin. The grandson of Gamaliel I, he rallied the Jews who had taken refuge in the city of Jabneh after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in AD 70. He became patriarch of the Jewish community of Israel c. AD 80. One of the greatest legal scholars of his era, Gamaliel is frequently cited in the Mishna. He helped unify the Jews by regulating prayer ritual and the Jewish calendar

http://www.answers.com/topic/gamaliel-ii

مصادر اخرى :

http://www.unitedjerusalem.org/index2.asp?id=382786

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/essene/message/2751?var=1

http://archive.southcoasttoday.com/daily/04-03/04-19-03/a06op041.htm

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